The High Spectral & Spatial Resolution Instrument Development Project (HSSRI) or Next-Generation LandSat

The object of this project is to develop a conceptual design for a next-generation LANDSAT or a LANDSAT/SPOT follow on instrument (High Spectral and Spatial Resolution Instrument, HSSRI) that will both duplicate all the data products of the previous instruments and also provide for much better data acquisition capability, to support advanced remote sensing research.

The author proposes to lead this project, supported by specialists in the various instrument technology disciplines.

Related projects:

For information on competing and related instruments see: Characteristics of Related Instruments


* Land use
* Biodiversity
* Habitat fragmentation
* Forest management
* Crop distribution
* Crop infestations
* Sedimentation
* Shoreline erosion
* Waste spills and contamination
* Water quality
* Algal blooms
* Natural or manmade disaster monitoring
* Non remote sensing applications (process control, art imaging, eg.)

HSSRI General characteristics

* VIS-NIR Bands - Full Spectral Imaging, Ground Resolution:10m
* SWIR Bands - Full Spectral Imaging, Ground Resolution: 30m
* IR Bands - Multispectral Imaging, Ground Resolution: 100m
* Blue, Green, Red, and NIR "Sharpening Bands", Spectro-Spatial Compression©, Ground Resolution: 1-2m
* Swath Width - ~180 Km [TBD]
* Orbital Characteristics - similar to LANDSAT or SPOT
* Full "Pushbroom" system (no scan mirrors)
* Full Spectral Imaging (VIS-NIR and SWIR) to replace Hyperspectral (many bands) Imaging
  [see Full Spectral Imaging]
* No on-board calibration systems (calibration relies on vicarious means and instrument stability)
  [see Empirical Reflectance Retrieval]
* Full spectral imaging data processing system
* On-board "spectro-spatial" data compression system
* Non-linear sensor digitization systems
* On-board geolocation system
* Forward motion compensation for elimination of pixel smear
* Yaw and roll control system for compensation for Earth rotation
* Direct broadcast data transmission
* Peer-to-peer, grid, data sharing and archiving

[More detailed information coming soon]



Swath width

 180 Km

Repeat coverage interval

 16 days (233 orbits)


705 kilometers 


 12 bits (non-linear)

On-board data storage

 TBD buffer for direct broadcast


 Sun-synchronous, 98.2 degrees

Equatorial crossing

Descending node; 10:00am +/- 15 min. 



Spatial resolution

10 meters 

Spectral resolution

5 nm 

Spectral range

600 nm 



Spatial resolution

30 meters 

Spectral resolution

10 nm 

Spectral range

900 nm  



Spatial resolution

100 meters 

Spectral resolution

50 nm (2 bands)  

Spectral range

 100 nm

RGB “Sharpening” Bands


Spatial resolution

2 meters  

Spectral resolution

4 bands:  

450-520 nm (Blue)

520-600 nm (Green)  

625-695 nm (Red) 

760-900 nm (InfraRed)  




Characteristics of Related Instruments




* KOMPSat-3A


* WorldView-3
* SKYBOX – Terra Bella
* SPOT-4

* Ikonos
* OrbView-3

* Pleiades
* QuickBird

* Resurs-P (47KS)
* Rapid Eye
* Warfighter-1
* Disaster Monitoring Constellation
* UO-Sat

* DubaiSat-2
* China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS-2)



LANDSAT 7 Characteristics (from

* a panchromatic band with 15m spatial resolution
* on board, full aperture, 5% absolute radiometric calibration
* a thermal IR channel with 60m spatial resolution


Landsat 7 and ETM+ Characteristics:

 Band Number

Spectral Range (microns)

Ground Resolution (m)


.45 to .515  



 .525 to .605



 .63 to .690



 .75 to .90



1.55 to 1.75  



 10.40 to 12.5



 2.09 to 2.35



.52 to .90  



 Swath width

185 kilometers

Repeat coverage interval

16 days (233 orbits) 


 705 kilometers 


 Best 8 of 9 bits

On-board data storage

~375 Gb (solid state) 


Sun-synchronous, 98.2 degrees 

Equatorial crossing

Descending node; 10:00am +/- 15 min.

Launch vehicle

Delta II 

Launch date

April 1999 



Operational Land Imager (OLI)  Characteristics (from:  &


Band Number





30 m



30 m



30 m



30 m



30 m



30 m



30 m



15 m



30 m



100 m



100 m




SENTINEL-2 Characteristics from:



Satellite Payload





Illustration of the KOMPSAT-3 spacecraft (image credit: KARI)



Technical Specs (from:



  Ground Sampling Distance

  PAN: 0.55mat 528km altitude (nadir)
  MS: 2.2m at 528km altitude (nadir)
  IR: 5.5 m at 528km altitude (nadir)

 Swath Width

  > 13km (nadir)

  Spectral Bands

  PAN: 450-900 µm
  MS1 (Blue): 450-520 µm
  MS2 (Green): 520-600 µm
  MS3 (Red): 630-690 µm
  MS4 (NIR): 760-900 µm
  MWIR: 3.3 µm - 5.2 µm

  Modulation Transfer Function

  System MTF at Nyquist fr. For PAN: 8%
  System MTF at Nyquist fr. For MS:8%
  System MTF at Nyquist fr. For MS: 8%


  0.05K at 300K


Imaging Capability

• Day time and night time imaging
• 270,000km˛ / day
• Channel selection: PAN / IR / PAN+MS / PAN+MS+IR




The most capable, low-cost small satellites ever deployed into Earth orbit.


More Capabilities, Less Cost Using only 10 micro-satellites, the Ceres constellation provides weekly data for any location on Earth at a lower cost than legacy multispectral data.

Planetary Resources is deploying a constellation of Arkyd 100 spacecraft in low-Earth orbit to deliver valuable information-rich data to markets today. With just 10 satellites, the Ceres constellation provides weekly hyperspectral and mid-wave infrared data for any spot on Earth at a lower cost than existing multispectral data. Furthermore, leveraging its revolutionary on-board processing power, the Ceres constellation can also be programmed on-board to search for and identify specific materials or temperature signatures – a capability that does not exist from satellites or drones today. Our system is also highly-intelligent and customizable. Ceres can send complete hyperspectral data cubes if required or can return specifically requested wavelengths, temperatures, or even simplified algorithmic “answers” about a target.


In bringing new capabilities to the market Ceres features:





WorldView-3 Satellite Sensor Specifications (Characteristics from:


WorldView-3 Satellite Sensor (0.31m)


(Image Copyright © DigitalGlobe)

Launch Date

August 13, 2014


Altitude: 617 km
Type: SunSync, 1:30 pm descending Node
Period: 97 min.


Spec Mission Life; 7.25 years
Estimated Service Life: 10 to 12 years

Spacecraft Size, Mass and Power

Size: 5.7 m (18.7 feet) tall x 2.5 m (8 feet) across, 7.1 m (23 feet) across the deployed solar arrays
Mass: 2800 kilograms (6200 pounds)
Power: 3.1 kW solar array, 100 Ahr battery

Sensor Bands

Panchromatic: 450-800 nm
8 Multispectral: (red, red edge, coastal, blue, green, yellow, near-IR1 and near-IR2) 400 nm - 1040 nm
8 SWIR: 1195 nm - 2365 nm
12 CAVIS Bands: (desert clouds, aerosol-1, aerosol-2, aerosol-3, green, water-1, water- 2, water-3, NDVI-SWIR, cirrus, snow) 405 nm - 2245 nm

Sensor Resolution ( or GSD, Ground Sample Distance; off-nadir is geometric mean)

Panchromatic Nadir: 0.31 m GSD at Nadir 0.34 m at 20° Off-Nadir
Multispectral Nadir: 1.24 m at Nadir, 1.38 m at 20° Off-Nadir
SWIR Nadir: 3.70 m at Nadir, 4.10 m at 20° Off-Nadir
CAVIS Nadir: 30.00 m

Dynamic Range

11-bits per pixel Pan and MS; 14-bits per pixel SWIR

Swath Width

At nadir: 13.1 km

Attitude Determination and Control

Type: 3-axis stabilized
Actuators: Control Moment Gyros (CMGs)
Sensors: Star trackers, precision, IRU, GPS

Pointing Accuracy and Knowledge

Accuracy: <500 m at image start and stop
Knowledge: Supports geolocation accuracy below

Retargeting Agility

Time to slew 200 km: 12 seconds

Onboard Storage

2199 Gb solid state with EDAC


Image & Ancillary: 800 & 1200 Mbps X-band
Housekeeping: 4, 16, 32 or 64 kbps real-time, 524 kbps stored, X-band
Command: 2 0r 64 kbps S-band

Max Contiguous Area Collected in a Single Pass (30° off-nadir angle)

Mono: 66.5 km x 112 km (5 strips)
Stereo: 26.6 km x 112 km (2 pairs)

Revisit Frequency(at 40°N Latitude)

1 m GSD: <1.0 day
4.5 days at 20° off-nadir or less

Geolocation Accuracy(CE90)

Predicted Performance: <3.5 m CE90 without ground control


680,000 km2 per day



SKYBOX Characteristics (from:



Terra Bella (from:


We are building an entirely new class of imaging satellites. We’ve developed a high-resolution, small satellite platform capable of rapid response, high-resolution imagery at a fraction of the cost of traditional imaging satellites.

One of the key enablers of this breakthrough is our ability to capture high-resolution color and near-infrared imagery (90 cm resolution) in a small <100 kilogram package. It’s like taking a picture of San Diego from San Francisco and being able to see objects up to the size of a car while moving at 5 miles per second.

We also use a two-dimensional sensor array with a proprietary image filter to capture a higher quality image by taking multiple frames per second and stitching them on the ground. This also gives us the ability to capture the first-ever commercial high-resolution video of Earth from a satellite. Future satellites will include propulsion modules to support orbit-stationing and enable improvements in resolution.

We’ve launched the first two satellites of our constellation in November 2013 and July 2014, which are continuing to capture beautiful imagery and video across the globe. As we continue to grow our constellation, we will be able to construct a living, breathing snapshot of any location in the world within hours, and tackle more problems around the globe.

SPOT 4 Characteristics (from
Spot 4


 Total mass (start of life)

2700 kg

Solar array

2.1 kW 

Solar panel span

 8032 m

Orbital altitude (at equator)

 822 km

Orbital period (nominal)

101.4 min

Overall dimensions of main structure

2 x 2 x 5.6 m 

Image Telemetry carrier frequency

8.253 GHz 

Image data bit rate

2 x 25 Mbits/sec 



Recording capacity of onboard recorders

2 x 40 min + 3 min (Solid State memory) 


HRV imaging instruments




Spectral bands (µm)

 0.50 - 0.59

0.61 - 0.68

0.61 - 0.68

0.61 - 0.68

0.79 - 0.89

0.61 - 0.68

1.58 - 1.75 

0.61 - 0.68

Pixel size

20 x 20 m 

10 x 10 m

Swath width (vertical viewing)

60 km 

60 km 

On board compression

DPCM (3/4) 

DPCM (3/4) 

EROS (Characteristics from:


EROS-B is a high-resolution commercial imaging minisatellite mission of ImageSat International N.V. headquartered in the Netherlands Antilles (Cayman Islands), with offices in Limassol, Cyprus, and in Tel Aviv, Israel. The overall objective is to provide high-resolution imagery to the customer base.







Circular sun-synchronous orbit

~480 km

~ 500 km

GSD (Ground Sampling Distance)

1.9 m standard
~1.1 m hyper-sampled

0.70 m panchromatic

Swath width

14 km
9.5 km (hyperspectral)

7 km

Scanning scheme

Asynchronous pushbroom

Asynchronous pushbroom or
Synchronous pushbroom

Spectral range of imagery

0.5-0.9 µm

0.5-0.9 µm

Data quantization

11 bit

10 bit

Downlink rate of imagery

70 Mbit/s

280 Mbit/s

LTDN (Local Time on Descending Node)

10:00 hours

14:00 hours

Launch - life expectancy (Ref. 2)

2000 -2012



ALOS/PRISM/AVNIR-2, "DAICHI" (Characteristics from:


The Japanese Earth observing satellite program consists of two series: those satellites used mainly for atmospheric and marine observation, and those used mainly for land observation. The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) follows the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 (JERS-1) and Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) and will utilize advanced land-observing technology. ALOS will be used for cartography, regional observation, disaster monitoring, and resource surveying.


The ALOS has three remote-sensing instruments: the Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) for digital elevation mapping, the Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2) for precise land coverage observation, and the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) for day-and-night and all-weather land observation. In order to utilize fully the data obtained by these sensors, the ALOS was designed with two advanced technologies: the former is the high speed and large capacity mission data handling technology, and the latter is the precision spacecraft position and attitude determination capability. They will be essential to high-resolution remote sensing satellites in the next decade. ALOS have been successfuly launched on an H-IIA launch vehicle from the Tanegashima Space Center, Japan.

ALOS Characteristics


 Launch Date

Jan. 24, 2006

Launch Vehicle


Launch Site

Tanegashima Space Center

Spacecraft Mass

Approx. 4 tons 

Generated Power

Approx. 7 kW (at End of Life)

Design Life

3 -5 years 


Sun-Synchronous Sub-Recurrent

Repeat Cycle: 46 days

Sub Cycle: 2 days 

Altitude: 691.65 km (at Equator) 

Inclination: 98.16 deg.

Attitude Determination Accuracy

2.0 x 10-4degree (with GCP) 

Position Determination Accuracy

1m (off-line) 

Data Rate

240Mbps (via Data Relay Technology Satellite) 

120Mbps (Direct Transmission) 

Onboard Data Recorder

Solid-state data recorder (90Gbytes)

PRISM  Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping

Image of PRISMThe Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) is a panchromatic radiometer with 2.5m spatial resolution at nadir. Its extracted data will provide a highly accurate digital surface model (DSM).
PRISM has three independent optical systems for viewing nadir, forward and backward producing a stereoscopic image along the satellite's track. Each telescope consists of three mirrors and several CCD detectors for push-broom scanning. The nadir-viewing telescope covers a width of 70km; forward and backward telescopes cover 35km each.
The telescopes are installed on the sides of the optical bench with precise temperature control. Forward and backward telescopes are inclined +24 and -24 degrees from nadir to realize a base-to-height ratio of 1.0. PRISM's wide field of view (FOV) provides three fully overlapped stereo (triplet) images of a 35km width without mechanical scanning or yaw steering of the satellite. Without this wide FOV, forward, nadir, and backward images would not overlap each other due to the Earth's rotation.

PRISM Characteristics


 Number of Bands

1 (Panchromatic)


0.52 to 0.77 micrometers 

Number of Optics

3 (Nadir; Forward; Backward) 

Base-to-Height ratio

1.0 (between Forward and Backward view) 

Spatial Resolution

2.5m (at Nadir) 

Swath Width

 70km (Nadir only) / 35km (Triplet mode)





Number of Detectors

28000 / band (Swath Width 70km)
14000 / band (Swath Width 35km) 

Pointing Angle

-1.5 to +1.5 degrees
(Triplet Mode, Cross-track direction) 

Bit Length

8 bits 

Note: PRISM cannot observe areas beyond 82 degrees south and north latitude.

Observation Modes

Mode 1   Triplet observation mode using Forward, Nadir, and Backward views (Swath width is 35km)
Mode 2   Nadir (70km) + Backward (35km)
Mode 3   Nadir (70km)
Mode 4   Nadir (35km) + Forward (35km)
Mode 5   Nadir (35km) + Backward (35km)
Mode 6   Forward (35km) + Backward (35km)
Mode 7   Nadir (35km)
Mode 8   Forward (35km)
Mode 9   Backward (35km)

AVNIR-2 Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type 2

image of AVNIR-2The Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2) is a visible and near infrared radiometer for observing land and coastal zones. It provides better spatial land-coverage maps and land-use classification maps for monitoring regional environments. AVNIR-2 is a successor to AVNIR that was on board the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS), which was launched in August 1996.
Its instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV) is the main improvement over AVNIR. AVNIR-2 also provides 10m spatial resolution images, an improvement over the 16m resolution of AVNIR in the multi-spectral region. Improved CCD detectors (AVNIR has 5,000 pixels per CCD; AVNIR-2 7,000 pixels per CCD) and electronics enable this higher resolution. A cross-track pointing function for prompt observation of disaster areas is another improvement. The pointing angle of AVNIR-2 is +44 and - 44 degree.

AVNIR-2 Characteristics


 Number of Bands



Band 1 : 0.42 to 0.50 micrometers
Band 2 : 0.52 to 0.60 micrometers
Band 3 : 0.61 to 0.69 micrometers
Band 4 : 0.76 to 0.89 micrometers

Spatial Resolution

10m (at Nadir) 

Swath Width

70km (at Nadir)




Band 1 through 3 : >0.25
Band 4 : >0.20 

Number of Detectors


Pointing Angle

- 44 to + 44 degree 

Bit Length

8 bits 

Note: AVNIR-2 cannot observe the areas beyond 88.4 degree north latitude and 88.5 degree south latitude.



Ikonos Sensor Specifications: (from:

Ikonos-1 was planned for launch in 1999 but the launch failed. Ikonos-2 was planned for launch in 2000, but was renamed Ikonos and was launched in September 1999 to replace Ikonos-1. The imaging sensors are panchromatic and multispectral. This satellite has a polar, circular, sun-synchronous 681-km orbit and both sensors have a swath width of 11 km.



 Wavelength Region (µm)

Resolution (m)


0.45-0.52 (blue) 



0.52-0.60 (green) 



0.63-0.69 (red) 



 0.76-0.90 (near-IR)





OrbView-3 Specifications (from




 Imaging Mode



Spatial Resolution

1 meter

4 meter 

Imaging Channels

1 channel  

4 channels 

Spectral Range

450-900 nm 

450-520 nm (Blue)
520-600 nm (Green)
625-695 nm (Red)
760-900 nm (InfraRed)

Swath Width

8 km

8 km 

Image Area

User Defined 

User Defined 

Revisit Time

Less than 3 days

Less than 3 days 

Orbital Altitude

470 km

470 km 

Nodal Crossing

10:30 A.M. 

10:30 A.M. 

System Life

5 years 

5 years 

The satellite will revisit each location on Earth in less than three days with its ability to turn from side-to-side up to 45 degrees.

Pleiades (from:

Pleiades-1A Satellite Sensor (0.5m)

(Image Copyright © AIRBUS Defence & Space)

Pleiades-1A Satellite Sensor Characteristics

Imagery Products

50-cm black and white
50-cm color
2-meter multispectral
Bundle: 50-cm B&W and 2-meter multispectral

Spectral Bands

P: 480-830 nm
Blue: 430-550 nm
Green: 490-610 nm
Red: 600-720 nm
Near Infrared: 750-950 nm

Preprocessing Levels


Image Location Accuracy

With ground control points: 1m
Without ground control points: 3m (CE90)

Imaging Capacity

Daily constellation capacity: 1,000,000
Strip mapping (mosaic): 100 km x 100 km
Stereo imaging: 20 km x 280 km
Max. spots over 100 km x 200 km: 30 (crisis mode)

Imaging Swath

20 km at nadir

Revisit Interval




QuickBird Sensor Specifications (from


 System Features

System Benefits

Spacecraft telemetry and camera model supplied with satellite imagery

Perform your own photogrammetric processing on raw data to produce orthorectified imagery and first generation basemaps 

Highest resolution available from a commercial satellite
# 61-cm (2 ft) panchromatic at nadir
# 2.44-m (8 ft) multispectral at nadir

Identify features, create maps, and detect changes from recent global imagery at the highest resolution possible from commercial imaging satellites

Largest image swath collection size
# 16.5-km (10.3 mi) width at nadir

Map large areas faster with fewer files to manage and process 

High radiometric response
# 11-bit digitization (up to 2048 levels of gray scale)
# Discrete non-overlapping bands

Improve feature classification and identification in dark or bright areas such as building shadows or snow and perform more flexible image enhancement

Open systems

# Camera model information supplied
# Compatible with leading commercial software providers
# Popular image file formats

Get your high-resolution satellite orthoimagery project up and running quickly and easily using your existing commercial software

Spatial and Spectral Resolution





Spectral Characteristics

Black & White

450 to 900-nm  


450 to 520-nm


520 to 600-nm


630 to 690-nm

Near IR

760 to 900-nm

Pixel Resolution

61-cm to 72-cm
(2 to 2.4-ft) 

2.44 to 2.88-m
(8 to 9.4-ft) 

Scene Dimensions

27,552 x 27,424 pixels 

6,888 x 6,856 pixels

Scene Size

272-km2 (nadir) to 435-km2 (25° off-nadir) (105 to 168-mi2)
16.5-km2 (nadir) to 20.8-km2 (25° off-nadir) 10.3 to 12.9-mi2)


Image Accuracy


 Positional Accuracy

CE 90%

23-meters (75-feet)

14-meters (46-feet)



 Radiometric Corrections

Sensor Corrections

Resampling Options

# Relative radiometric response between detectors
# Non-responsive detector fill
# Conversion to absolute radiometry

# Internal detector geometry
# Optical distortion
# Scan distortion
# Any line-rate variations
# Registration of the multispectral bands 

# 4x4 cubic convolution
# 2x2 bilinear
# Nearest neighbor
# 8-point sinc
# MTF kernel 

Order Parameters


 Product Type

Panchromatic, multispectral or both

Image Bits/Pixel

8 or 16 bits 

File Formats

GeoTIFF 1.0, NITF 2.1 or NITF 2.0 

Resurs-P (47KS) (from:


Above: General architecture of the Resurs-P satellite. Copyright © 2009 Anatoly Zak

Known specifications of the Resurs-P No. 1 (47KS) spacecraft:

Program cost

2.64 billion rubles 

Image resolution in panchromatic mode

1 meter

Image resolution in narrow spectral ranges

3-4 meters

Width of imaged area, when the satellite is pointed at nadir

38 kilometers

Number of spectral ranges that can be imaged simultaneously

From 1 to 6

Orbit type


Orbital altitude

475 kilometers

Orbital inclination

97.276 degrees toward the Equator

Projected life span

5 years

Dimensions of the spacecraft


Maximum length

7,930 millimeters

Maximum diameter

2,720 millimeters

Solar panel length

5,003 millimeters

Solar panel width

4,500 millimeters

Imaging system


Focal length

4,000 millimeters

Aperture diameter

500 millimeters

Field of view

5 degrees 12 minutes

A number of electronic conversion sensors


Hyper-spectral system


Number of channels

up to 216*

Spectral resolution

From 5 to 10 nanometers

Swath in nadir

30 kilometers

Spatial resolution in nadir

30 kilometers

*96 according to original technical assignment

: New European Earth Observation Satellite
The Spanish aerospace engineering company DEIMOS Space and the Remote Sensing Laboratory of the University of Valladolid (LATUV) have founded the new company DEIMOS Imaging for the design, implementation, operation, and commercial exploitation of a complete Earth Observation space system in Valladolid (Spain).

DEIMOS: New European Earth Observation Satellite

The system is based on a satellite with a multispectral optical instrument with a spatial resolution of 22 m and a wide swath of more than 600 km. The satellite records Earth images on board for a later downlink via the ground station under construction in the Technological Park of Boecillo (Valladolid, Spain).

DEIMOS Imaging is developing the new satellite system in collaboration with Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) based in Guilford (UK), European leader in the construction of small satellites, with an impressive record of over 30 launched satellites. One of them is the first experimental satellite of Galileo, the new European navigation constellation. This satellite was successfully launched in December 2005, and has secured the frequency assigned to Europe for the operation of this Constellation.

The planned launch date for the new satellite is the first quarter of 2008. The operational lifetime of the satellite is five years. The new company DEIMOS Imaging will provide Earth imagery at different processing levels to the European and global Earth Observation value added companies. In addition, it has the capability to develop applications leading to commercial products and services for final institutional and private users. The main applications of the system are targeted to agriculture, forest, land use, environment, hydrology, monitoring natural resources and disaster monitoring such as fires or flooding.

The processing, archiving and distribution centre will be located at the R&D Building of the University of Valladolid. In this University, LATUV has been developing its Remote Sensing activities during the last 18 years.

The new satellite provides a unique imaging capacity and revisit time at this level of resolution. Due to its large swath, it allows a double full coverage of Spain and Portugal every week, and a full coverage of Europe every 10 days. The regions of special interest for the new system are: Spain (and especially the region of Castile and Leon) where the system is located; Portugal where the sister company DEIMOS Engenharia will commercialise the system, and the rest of Europe, where DEIMOS Imaging would like to contribute to the development of the GMES (Global, Monitoring, Environment and Security), a joint Programme of ESA and the European Union (EU).

DEIMOS satellite will be integrated into the international constellation DMC (Disaster Monitoring Constellation), which is composed of satellites from the UK, China, Nigeria, Algeria and Turkey. The combined use of the constellation satellites provides a unique capacity for Earth Observation, with more than one daily image of any place in the world.

The DMC is a unique international collaboration of member nations and, through this satellite, Spain joins the existing countries in the consortium (Algeria, China, Nigeria, Turkey and the UK). Each member of the consortium owns and operates a satellite whilst co-operating with the other members of the consortium. The model of co-operation has significant benefits – it allows information generated on-board one satellite to be used by other members of the consortium.

More Information
Deimos Space S.L.
Miguel Belló Mora, Managing Director
Tel: +34 918063450

Rapid Eye

RapidEye System Specifications

Mission characteristic


Number of Satellites:


Spacecraft Lifetime:

7 years

Orbit Altitude:

630 km in Sun-synchronous orbit

Equator Crossing Time:

11:00 am (approximately)

Sensor Type:

Multi-spectral push broom imager

Spectral Bands:


Capable of capturing any of the following spectral bands:





Red Edge:


Spectral Bands (nm)

440 – 510

520 – 590

630 – 685

690 – 730

760 – 850


Ground sampling distance (nadir):

6.5 m

Pixel size (orthorectified):

5 m

Swath Width:

77 km

On board data storage:

Up to 1500 km of image data per orbit

Revisit time:

Daily (off-nadir) / 5.5 days (at nadir)

Image capture capacity:

4 million sq km/day

Dynamic Range:

Up to 12 bit




RapidEye AG
Kurfürstendamm 22
10719 Berlin

Phone: +49 30-6098300-100
Fax: +49 30-6098300-101

Phone: +1 571-384-7922
Fax: +1 571-384-7959
Toll Free: +1-800-940-3617


The Warfighter-1 program is an advanced technology demonstration program that will provide hyperspectral imagery and related technology and services as a part of OSC’s ORBView-4 high-resolution imaging satellite. Iinitially, the plan was to use ORBView-3, and OrbImage's OrbView-4 (OV-4) is being modified to incorporate the Warfighter-1 (WF-1) hyperspectral sensor. The extremely design and polar orbit of OV-4 make it very well suited for its earth remote sensing mission. The satellite’s high-performance electro-optical digital camera will be modified to add hyperspectral imaging capabilities. The program will also include the evaluation and validation of hyperspectral technologies, development of a mobile ground station, related image processing algorithms and software for assessment of tactical utility for military applications.




     470 Km
     97.3 Deg. Inclination
     Sun Synchronous
     10:30am Descending Node


     1-Meter Panchromatic
     4-Meter Multispectral
     8-Meter Hyperspectral

Launch Vehicle: OSC Taurus
Satellite Weight: 360 kg
Scheduled Launch Date: Mid FY00
Hyperspectral Payload Lifetime: 3 Yr Life/ 5 Yr Goal

Sensor Characteristics:

Body Scanning Whisk-Broom Scan Imager
     Field of Regard: ±50°
8 x 8 Km Nominal Scene Size In Pan/Multispectral Modes
     Panchromatic @ 1 & 2 Meter GSD
     Multispectral - 4 Bands @ 4 Meter GSD
5 x 20 Km Scene Size For Hyperspectral Modes
     Visible/NIR/SWIR/MWIR @ 8 Meter GSD
     2 Grating Spectrometers
     280 Spectral Bands, Ranging From 0.45 To 5.0 µm
Geo-Location Of Pixels
     Panchromatic Pixels To Better Than 12 Meters @ 90%
     Hyperspectral Pixels To Within 75 Meters 3
Downlink Data Rate: 150 Mbps
     3 Watt X-Band Transmitter @ 8.2 GHz
Onboard Data Storage: 32 Gb
     Five 100 Km2 Hypercubes
     Uplink - NSA Encrypted
     Downlink - Commercial Data Encryption Standard

Hyperspectral Focal Plane Characteristics 









40 x 640  



257 K 


80 x 640



 257 K


80 x 640 



195 K 


80 x 640


25 nm 

90 K 

Hyperpectral Band Characteristics 

 Band Wavelength

Range (µm)

# Bands













Commercial Band Characteristics
















Australian Resource Information and Environment Satellite (ARIES)

ARIES Characteristics:

* Weight: Less than 500 kg
* Orbit: 98 degrees sun synchronous, 500 km above the Earth’s surface
* Sensors: 32 contiguous bands in the visible and near infrared (400 to 1,100 nm, minimum 600:1 SNR at 600 nm)
* 32 contiguous bands in the short-wave infrared (2,000-2,500 nm, minimum 400:1 SNR at 2,100 nm)
* Optional coverage of 1,000-2,000 nm range with emphasis on sensors for atmospheric correction and calibration
* Panchromatic sensor
* Spatial Resolution: Hyperspectral - 30 m at nadir Panchromatic – 10 m at nadir
* Ground Swath: 15 km at nadir
* Off track pointing: To 30 degrees off vertical
* Revisit Time: 7 days at 30 degrees look angle
* Design Life: 5 years
* Expected Launch Date: 2002 and

DMC - Disaster Monitoring Constellation (Surrey Satellite Technology, Ltd.)

The Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) was designed as a proof of concept constellation, capable of multispectral imaging of any part of the world every day. It is unique in that each satellite is independently owned and controlled by a separate nation, but all satellites have been equally spaced around a sun-synchronous orbit to provide daily imaging capability.

The satellites are all designed and built at Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. (SSTL) in the UK. Through the support of the British National Space Centre, SSTL owns and operates the UK satellite in the constellation.

Although its headline objective is to support the logistics of disaster relief, its main function is to provide independent daily imaging capability to the partner nations; Algeria, Nigeria, Turkey, UK and China.

The DMC satellites provide a unique Earth Observation resource that enables daily revisit anywhere in the world. This is possible with only a few satellites because they are designed to image a large area of up to 600 x 600km. This greatly improves the value of the data as it often avoids the need for mosaics of images from different seasons.

All DMC Members agree to provide 5% of capacity free for daily imaging of disaster areas, and this data is channelled to aid agencies through Reuters AlertNet in the beginning. The DMC Consortium has agreed to consider participation in the International Charter for Space in Major Disasters, contributing daily imaging capability to fill the existing 3-5 day response gap. UK-DMC also provides data through an ESA project called RESPOND. In addition the DMC Members are interested in encouraging the use of DMC data for scientific and commercial applications.


Mission & Spacecraft


• Daily revisit , worldwide
• 5 equi-spaced s/c @ 686 km
• 80 kg mass; mass limit 140 kg
• 36 m / 600 km swath, tri-linear array imaging payload
• 3-axis momentum bias stabilised <0.01°/s, accuracy <1.0°
• On-board orbit control & GPS orbit determination
• Design Life 5 years


UO-Sat 12 Multispectral Imager

Ground Sampled Distance; 30m
Spectral bands: blue, green, red, Near-IR
Image Coverage: 60km x 30km (dual-imager system)
Detector: Kodak: 1024 x 1024

The standard DMC Imager is a 6 channel, Surrey Linear Imager (SLIM6) and is built by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL), UK. The sensor is an evolution of previous multispectral cameras flown on various SSTL missions. The SLIM6 design provides for a nadir-viewing, three-band multispectral scanning camera capable of providing mid-resolution image information of the Earth's surface when operated from DMC spacecraft located in a near polar, sun-synchronous and circular orbit at a 686 km nominal altitude, with an orbit inclination of 98 degrees. The SLIM6 is designed to collect and detect radiation from the Earth in a swath 600 km wide as it passes overhead, utilising the spacecraft orbital motion to provide an along-track scan (push broom configuration). As a DMC image is acquired the CCD scan lines for each of the 6 channels are stored in a Solid State Data Recorder (SSDR) in a band-interlaced RAW format format. A separate SSDR is used to store data from each bank of three CCDs as it is acquired.

SLIM6 Design

The SLIM6 consists of 2 banks (Port and Starboard) of 3 channels (bands) and therefore 6 separate channels collect scene energy, as depicted below. Combination of the 2 banks provides the total nominal swath width in satellite view of 600km.

SLIM6 - Single Channel Focal Plane Assembly

Each SLIM6 imager channel has a solid-state detector at the focal plane.

The spectral filters for the bands are located in front of each channel lens. To protect the filter a fused silica radiation protection window is set in front of the filter (space facing).

Each channel lens is a Schneider Apo-Componon HM, this lens type has been flown on SSTL missions since 2000 (Tsinghua-1).



Eastman Kodak KL10203 Linear CCD sensor. 10224 7.0 x 7.0um pixel array


Schneider Apo-Componom HM 150mm focal length, f/6.3 

Lens data sheet FL value



46.388ur = 0.00266 degrees = 9.568 arc sec 

FoV (per channel)

2 x tan-1 ((7x10200)/(2x150.9)) = 26.62 degrees 

Swath (per channel)

31.822 x 10200 = 324.58km 

SLIM6 - Spectral Filters

The nominal wavelength location of the SLIM6 spectral bands, nominal iFOV size and associated ground sample distance resolution, for a 686 km satellite altitude, are as shown in the table below. The SLIM6 spectral response is determined by the overall combination of all of the optical elements, the spectral filters, and the detector response. The spectral filters, located immediately in front of each channel lens, are the dominant items that establish the optical bandpass for each spectral band. Each SLIM6 Channel has a filter housing for the relevant filter as shown in Figure 1. Barr Associates Inc, USA manufactures the SLIM6 spectral filters with the same materials and processes as the Landsat ETM+ flight filters.






Sub Sat GSD

Landsat Eqv



1 (starboard) 

0.77 - 0.90um 





 0 (port)

0.77 - 0.90um






1 (starboard) 

 0.63 - 0.69um





 0 (port)

0.63 - 0.69um






1 (starboard) 

0.52 - 0.60um 





 0 (port)

 0.52 - 0.60um




SLIM 6 - Sensor Model


The SLIM6 consists of 2 banks (Port and Starboard) of 3 channels (bands). Commonly both banks are used for image acquisition and the angle of the banks provides an overlap in the observed scene for corresponding bands/sensors in the opposite bank. This overlap is used to ensure accurate multiple image overlay or recombination. The nominal overlap based on in orbit calibration data is 567 pixels.


Nominal Value

Vertical Angle

25.2896 degrees 

Focal Length

21557 detector units 

Number of detectors


Overlap between banks

567 detectors

Clock Period




DubaiSat-2 is the second Earth observation satellite of United Arab Emirates Institution for Advanced Science and Technology (EIAST).


The DubaiSat-2 project is a joint development programme between EIAST and SatrecI of South Korea, in which 16 UAE engineers have been working on the design, development, testing and manufacturing of the satellite. A Hall Effect Propulsion System (HEPS) is installed for orbit control and maintenance. Accurate and agile three-axis attitude control supports precise imaging operations. Dual redundancies are adapted where necessary in the system architecture design to increase reliability of the satellite system.


As the predecessor DubaiSat 1, it is built by Satrec Initiative to be launched in 2012. DubaiSat-2 is based pon the SpaceEye-1 configuration, which uses a SI-300 bus and the EOS-D camera.


EOS-D optical payload is a push-broom type camera with 1 m Ground Sampling Distance (GSD) for a panchromatic band and 4 m GSD for four multi-spectral bands. Swath width of the generated image is wider than 12 km. A high performance solid-state recorder is installed to receive, process, store and transmit image data in high speed. During transmission of the stored image data using X-band transmitter, the solid-state recorder compresses, encrypts and encodes the data in real time.


The satellite will be launched in 2012 together with other small satellites by a Dnepr from Dombarovsky (Yasny).



United Arab Emirates

Type / Application:

Earth Observation, Technology




Satrec Initiative (SATRECI)


EOS-D camera


SI-300 bus


Hall Effect Propulsion System (HEPS)


4 deployable fixed solar arrays, batteries


5 years


~300 kg


600 km SSO




The BILSAT-1 satellite was launched by Turkey in Russia, September 2003. BILSAT-1 is to be part of a Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC). The platform has three imaging sensors, a 4-band VNIR sensor, a high-resolution panchromatic sensor, and a low-resolution 9-band camera, and has polar, circular, sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 686km. The multispectral instrument, COBAN, has a spatial resolution of 120m, and the 9 channels are within the range 400-950nm. The swath widths are 55km for the VNIR and 25km for the pan sensors and the sensors have a 4-day repeat cycle.



Wavelength Region (µm)

Resolution (m)


0.45-0.52 (blue)



0.52-0.60 (green)



0.63-0.69 (red)



0.76-0.90 (NIR)





China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS-2)


ZY / CBERS  Other Designations: China Brazil Earth Resource Satellite. Manufacturer's Designation: CBERS. Code Name: Zi Yuan. Class: Earth. Type: Landsat. Destination: Sun Synchronous Orbit. Nation: China. Agency: CAST/INP.

From 1985 China and Brazil jointly developed a sun synchronous imaging satellite bus, the Zi Yuan-1 (Resouce-1) based on the Shi Jian 3 design. The joint project was externally referred to as CBERS (China Brazil Earth Resource Satellite) with China contributing 70% of the program cost.

Originally launches were planned for 1996 and 1999 but there was a three year delay. The spacecraft had overall dimensions of 2 m by 3.3 m by 8.3 m with a 1.1 kW capacity, single solar array and was to operate in an 800-km sun-synchronous orbit with a 26-day repeating ground track pattern.

The Earth observation payload included three primary sensors (the first two of Chinese origin):

* CCD Camera: Five bands (0.51-0.73 micrometer, 0.45-0.52 micrometer, 0.52-0.59 micrometer, 0.63-0.69 micrometer, and 0.77-0.89 micrometer); 20-m resolution; 113 km swath
* IR Multi-Spectral Scanner: Four bands (0.50-1.10 micrometer, 1.55-1.75 micrometer, 2.08-2.35 micrometer, and 10.40-12.50 micrometer); 80-160-m resolution; 120-km swath
* Wide-Field Imager: Two bands (0.63-0.69 micrometer and 0.76-0.90 micrometer); 260-m resolution; 900-km swath.

Zi Yuan-1 also carried a Data Collection System and a Space Environment Monitor. The China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite was jointly built by CAST/Beijing and INPE/Brasil. The spacecraft was controlled from both Chinese and Brazilian ground stations. CBERS-2 was under construction at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE), and was originally to be launched in October 2001.

China and Brazil signed an agreement in September 2000 to develop two second-generation China-Brazil Earth Remote Sensing satellites (CBERS-3 and -4). The satellites were to include a significant improvement in the imaging resolution of the High Resolution CCD Camera (resolution of 5 meters vs. CBERS-1's 20 meters). The two countries would also study joint development of geostationary meteorological satellites and a telecommunications satellites based on the CBERS bus.

The sun-synchronous orbital bus developed for CBERS and the CBERS-3 imager may have been used for the military ZY-2 satellite, which was placed in a lower orbit for higher resolution imaging. The ZY-2 reportedly had over three times the resolution of the ZY-1.

Typical orbit: 634 km circular orbit, 98 deg inclination. Length: 3.30 m (10.80 ft). Maximum Diameter: 2.00 m (6.50 ft). Span: 8.30 m (27.20 ft). Mass: 1,450 kg (3,190 lb). Associated Launch Vehicle: CZ-4B.


The CCD camera, with 20 m spatial resolution, five spectral bands, and a 120 km field of view is oriented to observe phenomenon or objects in a city or regional scale for applications as Vegetation, Agriculture, Cartography, Geology and Soils, and Education. Images from the same region are take each 26 days.
For other hand the IRMSS camera has three spectral bands with 80 m spatial resolution, and an additional band in the thermal infrared region with 160 m resolution. The IRMSS camera besides the CCD applications, could be used to analyze phenomenon which shows surface temperature variations, to generate mosaics of a state region scale and to generate image charts.
The other camera is the WFI which could image large areas in the order to 900 km. This characteristics is very important to observe phenomenon that its magnitude or subject is in a macro regional or state scale. With the WFI camera, images of the same Earth region could be taken each 5 days.


The imagers -- each with varying resolutions -- make up the main remote sensing payload aboard CBERS 2. A camera with a resolution of 20 meters will spend much of its time gathering images of smaller-scale locales, focusing on applications such as agriculture, cartography, and geology.
Another instrument gathers infrared data to study temperature differences and to generate mosaics using three spectral bands with 80-meter resolution and another with a resolution of 160 meters.
A Wide Field Imager is available to study larger regions up to 900 kilometers in size with a revisit period of just five days, compared with 26 days of repeat visit time with the higher resolution cameras.

Hyperspectral (Full Spectral) LANDSAT follow-on study proposal

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"A Conceptual Design for an imaging Spectrometer" A study done by the author, completed in 1991, for the MODIS-T Project


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